A cluster boundary refers to the start or the end position of a cluster (a group of sectors). If a file is fragmented (stored in non-contiguous clusters), the fragmentation happens at the cluster boundary, as there is no smaller unit of storage space that can be addressed by a computer.
Examining data at cluster boundaries can be an important technique to improve the speed of some search routines. For example when file carving for file headers, it is faster to search the cluster boundary (i.e. the beginning of a cluster) rather than a sector by sector search of the drive.
A deleted file is one which has been marked as deleted by the file-system (usually as a result of being sent to and emptied from with Recycle Bin). A deleted file can be recovered by reading the file-system record for the file, then reading and restoring the file data. As long as the data for the file is intact (i.e. the space once occupied by the file has not been used to store new data) the recovered file will be valid.
In some cases the file-system record itself can be overwritten and destroyed. If this is the case the file can only be recovered by “file carving” and it is returned and displayed in Recover My Files as a “carved”. Because file and folder information is only stored with the file-system record, a carved file does not retain its original file or folder name.
A graphical representation in Recover My Files of sectors on the examined device. Drive view can be used to:
- Examine the content of the data in a specific sector/s;
- Quickly navigate to a desired sector position on the device;
- Obtain a graphical overview of the file types which make up the drive and where they are position on the examined media;
- Identify the location and fragmentation of individual files.
FAT (File Allocation Table) is the file-system that pre-dates NTFS. Once popular on Windows 95, 98 and XP, it is now primarily used on memory cards, USB drives, flash memory etc. due to its simplicity and compatibility between Operating Systems (e.g. Windows and MAC).
For more information see: http://www.forensicswiki.org/wiki/FAT
File carving (also known as file carving or carving) is the process of searching for files based on a known content, rather than relying of file-system metadata. This usually involves searching for a known header and footer of a specific file type.
Recover My Files has built in code to data carve for more than 300 file types.
A Hash is a mathematical calculation to generate a unique value for specific data. The chances of two files that contain different data having the same hash value are exceedingly small.
The most common hash algorithm in use is 128-bit MD5.
Windows automatically keeps an index of what files were deleted including the date and time of the deletion. The index is held in a hidden file in the Recycle Bin called INFO2.
When the Recycle Bin is emptied, the INFO2 file is deleted.
Recovery and analysis of deleted INFO2 files can provide important information about files that were once located on the computer.
Logical Evidence Files (or Logical images Files) are images of selected files, rather than the traditional image of a volume or physical drive. They are usually created during a preview where an investigator identifies file based evidence worthy of preservation, when an image of the entire volume or device is not warranted.
A directory is a container used to organize folders and files into a hierarchical structure. The root (also referred as the root folder or root directory) is the first level folder of the hierarchy (It is analogous to the root of a tree, from which the trunk and branches arise). The root folder is the same as click on the drive letter in Windows Explorer, e.g. being located in folder “C:\”.
A directory that is below the root is called a subdirectory. A directory above a subdirectory is called its parent directory. The root is the parent of all directories.
“Directory” was a more common term when DOS use was prolific (The “DIR” command is used in DOS to list the contents of a directory). Directories are now more commonly referred to as “Folders”.
Despite its longevity, the rule can be difficult to apply in today's world. The 3-2-1 rule states that in order to be fully protected, organizations must have three copies of their data on two different types of media, with one copy off site.Is data recovery always possible? ›
Of course, data recovery isn't always possible. Sometimes the data storage device is corrupt or damaged, making data recovery impossible.What is data recovery explanation? ›
What is data recovery? Enterprise data recovery is the process of restoring lost, corrupted, accidentally deleted, or otherwise inaccessible data to its server, computer, mobile device, or storage device (or to a new device if the original device no longer works).What is the 4-3-2 backup rule? ›
Another relatively new option is 4-3-2. In this case, four copies of the data are stored in three locations, but two of these must be off-site. The 4-3-2 strategy means that backups are duplicated and geographically distant from one another to protect against natural disasters.What is the 4-3-2 backup strategy? ›
4-3-2 Backup Strategy Overview
It's similar to the 3-2-1 strategy but with two more copies. This layered approach makes business data protection strategies more robust and reliable because you have more options when it comes to recovering data.
Three major types of disaster recovery sites can be used: cold, warm, and hot sites.What are the 7 tools of recovery? ›
- 1) Take it one day at a time, or even one hour at a time. ...
- 2) Keep calm, and set boundaries that allow you to recharge. ...
- 3) Find support with your tribe. ...
- 4) Practice gratitude. ...
- 5) Learn to be more comfortable with being uncomfortable. ...
- 6) Create a healthy routine.
What Are the Five Stages of Change? The five stages of addiction recovery are precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance. Read on to find out more about the various stages.When can data not be recovered? ›
After data has been physically overwritten on a hard disk drive, it is generally assumed that the previous data are no longer possible to recover.
Yes. Through the use of data recovery tools, the data that resided on your hard drive can be recovered. However, data recovery isn't always possible, so it will depend on how effectively the data was erased and the physical condition of the drive itself.
Once files have been overwritten once, they're only theoretically recoverable. When they've been overwritten more than once, they're gone forever. Deleted data on a solid-state drive – Solid-state drives work differently than HDDs, and when they delete data, they typically destroy it immediately.How is deleted data recovered? ›
- Check Your Recycle Bin. Find the File. ...
- Use the Control Panel. If you can't find the file in the recycling bin, it could still be stored elsewhere on your computer. ...
- Use a Data Recovery Software. ...
- Hire a Data Recovery Service.
Backups are the single most important part of data recovery because they serve as a safety net in case of data loss. A backup is essentially a copy of your data that you can use to restore your system to a previous state.How is data recovery done? ›
The data recovery process relies on backups to work. Without a backup, you would need to rebuild lost data from scratch, which could take a lot of (avoidable) time and effort. Backup and recovery solutions like Rewind combine backup and recovery functions into a single, user-friendly interface.What is 321 backup concept? ›
The basic concept of the 3-2-1 backup strategy is that three copies are made of the data to be protected, the copies are stored on two different types of storage media and one copy of the data is sent off site.What is the 321 data protection rule? ›
The 3-2-1 backup rule refers to a tried-and-tested approach to data retention and storage: Keep at least three (3) copies of data. Store two (2) backup copies on different storage media. Store one (1) backup copy offsite.What is the 3 1 1 backup rule? ›
Complete Ransomware Protection Starts With 3-2-1-1
It says to keep three copies of your data—one primary and two backups—with two copies stored locally on two formats (network-attached storage, tape, or local drive) and one copy stored offsite in the cloud or secure storage.